If WSUS Post Configuration tasks fail, check the log for a missing ContentDir parameter:
Start: GetConfigValue with filename=UpdateServices-Services.xml item=ContentLocal
Value is true
Start: GetConfigValue with filename=UpdateServices-Services.xml item=ContentDirectory
Config file did not contain a value “ContentDirectory”
Microsoft.UpdateServices.Administration.CommandException: A required configuration value was not found in the system. This is usually caused by installing WSUS through PowerShell and not specifying a configuration file. Review the article Managing WSUS Using PowerShell at TechNet Library (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=235499) for more information on the recommended steps to perform WSUS installation using PowerShell.
This can happen if WSUS is added as a feature via Powershell, but also sometimes when using server manager.
The WSUS setup uses the UpdateServices-Services.xml from the ServerManager module. If the ContentDirectory node is empty ServerManager will use a root folder on the drive with most space (e:\wsus) and create a content directory there (e:\wsus\wsuscontent)
If this happens, even if you define a content folder in the wizard, then run the post install tasks with the following command lines (elevated) depending on whether using a WID or SQL Server
For installations using WID:
wsusutil postinstall CONTENT_DIR=E:\WSUS (or whatever parent folder for WSUSContent you’ve specified)
For installations using SQL Server:
wsusutil postinstall CONTENT_DIR=E:\WSUS SQL_INSTANCE_NAME=databaseServer[\instanceName]